Commerce, Agriculture, and Slavery: Crash Course European History #8

Commerce, Agriculture, and Slavery: Crash Course European History #8


Hi I’m John Green and this is Crash Course
European History. So, last time, we were focusing on queens
and kings and rivalries.Today we’re gonna take a break from struggles over religion
and political disputes that made for so much violence and look instead at some basics of
everyday life–the foods people ate centuries ago, the kinds of things people bought and
sold, and changes in the kinds of lives people could hope to live. I know developments in agriculture and commerce
may seem like sidelines to the main political show—I mean, there’s a reason it’s called
Game of Thrones and not like, Game of Slightly Improved Seed Quality–but I’d argue that
history is about how people lived, and what we might learn from their lives. And if you think about our lives today, our
leaders are important. Our forms of government are important. But as Miroslav Volf said, Politics touches
everything, but politics isn’t everything. On a day-to-day basis, our lives are also
shaped by the kinds of goods and services available to us, and our professional and
personal opportunities. Whether you go to school, whether you get
enough to eat, the kinds of freedom you do and do not enjoy… those are the big questions
we’re exploring today. INTRO
The citizens of many European nations today have long life expectancies, and a top standard
of living. Europe also comprises the largest developed
economic market place and a major region of trade. But in 1500, that was hardly the case. In the early fourteenth century a major famine
erupted, with further famines across the centuries. We’ve talked about the Black Death. Trade was local and regulated by guilds—that
is, by organizations of individual artisans and traders that determined the number and
type of goods that could be produced and marketed. In the late middle ages Europe was a subsistence
economy, with little if any agricultural surplus. If princes could satisfy their appetite for
food and drink on a regular and reliable basis, they were virtually alone in experiencing
a consistently happy and full stomach. In 1500, Europe was not exceptional in life
expectancy or in many other measures of well-being. But in the early modern period, roughly between
1500 and 1750 the situation gradually improved,. And I know that seems impossible, given all
the religious strife, and wars, and massacres we’ve discussed in this series so far. But during this period, population actually
rose; In Britain, for instance, the population almost
doubled between 1700 and 1800. Historians attribute this rise to developments
in agriculture, sometimes called an agricultural revolution that unfolded alongside all that
warfare. And there was also a growth in commerce, often
called a commercial revolution, and of course, the Columbian exchange, which made new nutritious
foods–from potatoes to corn–available to Europeans. But the agricultural revolution was also driven
by innovation that dramatically boosted agricultural yields in Europe between 1500 and 1800. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. For starters, it was discovered that planting
certain crops, like turnip and clover, could replenish soil, which was one example of crop
rotation–farmers would plant one crop in a field one year, and then another the next
year, rotating 2 or at times three crops to add nutrients to the soil.
and the great thing about crop rotation is that it decreased the amount of farmland that
needed to remain fallow each year–that is, unplanted. Secondly, with the Dutch pioneering some advances,
land reclamation occurred across Europe. This entailed converting marshes and other
previously unusable land into farmland. and Third, common lands were enclosed. Enclosure occurred when wealthier farmers
bought up or simply took common land (land that had been open to community use). Private farms were able to innovate faster
than communities, which required consensus in group decision-making. And fourth, there were new inventions such
as the seed drill and a plow that could be drawn by two instead of six or eight farm
animals. The new plow cut down on expenses and the
seed drill made planting more accurate with less wasted seed. Both of these new tools, by the way, copied
Chinese inventions. But while enclosure and more mechanized farming
practices did mean more overall food, and therefore more overall wealth, not everyone
benefited, because a decrease in common land meant that fewer people had direct access
to land for their own use. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So one example of all these innovations can
be seen in the life of [[TV: Elizabeth of Sutherland]] Elizabeth, Countess of Sutherland,
who inherited some 800,000 acres in Scotland. Stan, hold on a second. Is that a trout in her hair? Is is a feather? Was there some kind of hair fish trend at
the time? Let’s move on from lighthearted hair fish
jokes and talk about people being wrested from their land.So, Elizabeth removed hundreds
of tenants from her estate, then created unified acreage for farming and raising sheep with
the help of day laborers. These landless workers were cheaper, and also
unlike the tenant farmers who had lived on the land previously, day laborers did not
have longstanding claims to inhabit and work the land, called “tenancy.” The Countess was known for chasing villagers
away from their land with her own hands, and also for innovations that increased productivity
even as Sutherland’s former tenants became homeless. So more overall food, but on land controlled
by fewer people. So obviously, this Agricultural Revolution
entailed massive social dislocation that included the rise of poverty, migration of disenfranchised
farmworkers to cities and also to other continents, and even as overall agricultural production
rose, some among the poor starved. And this period of European history is still
widely debated in part because ideas of private property and inequality of wealth remain resonant
today, but whether this modernization helped or hurt humanity again depends on your perspective. To some, it was fatal. To many, it meant trauma and impoverishment
as people were removed from lands their families had farmed for generations. But these changes also helped fuel greater
overall food production, population growth, larger cities, and more space for all kinds
of specialized labor, from shoemaking to theater. I mean, it’s no coincidence that Shakespeare
and Marlowe were writing as English agricultural production started to increase. Another ingredient in the rising population
and overall output of food was the inflow of novel plants from the Americas and other
parts of the world. Potatoes and maize, for example, were grown
on the marginal land that was previously seen as unfit for agriculture. Farmers started experimenting with all the
new crops, but especially with maize and potatoes that could produce super-abundant…did the
world just open? Is there a potato in the center? There’s a lot of candidates for most important
plant of the last 500 years, but I’m gonna say it’s the potato. They contain lots of carbohydrates, and whatever
micronutrients are. You can turn them into both French fries and
tater tots, the world’s two most important foods. But most importantly, you don’t need great
soil to have great potatoes. Just ask Idaho! [[TV: Rice]] In addition to the transfer of
crops, knowledge about agriculture was transferred from Africa and the Americas to Europe. Women in both the Americas and Africa had
made their regions food-rich, as European traders and invaders testified, and their
knowledge of crops and irrigation techniques allowed, for instance, rice to be grown in
much larger quantities in European colonies. [[TV: Slave Trade]] Much of what Europeans
learned about agriculture from Africans came from enslaved women agriculturalists. Slavery has existed for millennia, but slaves
have experienced very different lives depending on culture, and religion, and occupation,
and gender. [[TV: Slaves at Work]] Before 1650, the Atlantic
slave ships took an annual total of 7,500 Africans to the Western Hemisphere—and that
number was comparable to other slave routes, such as the one in South Asia or the Ottoman
Empire. The vast majority went to Mexico and South
America. European ships transported other slaves from
the Indian Ocean across the Pacific, many of them to Mexico. But, beginning in the late seventeenth century,
there was a massive upsurge in African slavery that sought to replace the labor of the native
American populations that had been utterly devastated by disease and warfare. In particular, slave labor was used to fill
the world’s increasing demand for commodities and consumer goods. Europeans came to depend on sugar, and tobacco,
and coffee, and tea–all of which was produced primarily via forced labor. [[TV: Mansa Musa]] And racism developed alongside
the growth of the African slave trade. At first, Europeans were in awe of African
wealth in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as it motivated their first contacts. They craved African gold and found African
men and women stately–“intelligent and rich,” as one Portuguese trader wrote. However, greed for profit took over and as
the indigenous Amerindian population declined, the desire for slaves grew, and to justify
slavery, European descriptions of Africans became contemptuous and dehumanizing. [[TV: Slave Ship]] As dehumanization progressed,
Europeans treated Africans as morally and intellectually inferior, and used those incorrect
constructions to justify their horrendous treatment of Africans, packing them into slave
ships and subjecting them to the lethal middle passage across the Atlantic. African kings and independent African traders
fed the rising demand for slaves. In those days of state consolidation African
rulers sought funds for weaponry, which Europeans provided in exchange for slaves. More advanced weaponry then allowed leaders
to capture additional people to sell to European slavers for yet more weapons. European slavers mostly operated along the
West African coast, while Arabs took slaves from East Africa to sell to India or into
the Middle Eastern markets. The Saharan slave trade went northward, transporting
many women slaves to serve as domestics and as sex workers. But the European slave was by far the largest,
and the dehumanizing racism that has endured to this day. [[TV: Slaves at Work]] In the eighteenth century,
one million slaves worked in the sugar industry and diamond and gold mines of Brazil. These industries were tremendously lucrative,
and in that sense, slavery both produced and was a product of growing European wealth. The conditions of slavery were truly dire:
Torture, beatings, overwork, and malnutrition were routine. And because the system itself did not treat
them as humans, enslaved people had very little recourse, and there was always the knowledge
that you could be separated from your children, from your family, at any time, because you
were treated legally and practically as property. The slave trade itself was part of a web of
interactions that is still being understood. Historians used to talk of the triangle trade:
shippers took small iron goods from Britain to Africa, trading them for slaves; and then
shippers dropped off the slaves who survived the passage in Brazil or the Caribbean, and
then filled their holds with local sugar or molasses to take back to England. But while there was a triangle, there were
also many other shapes. West African rulers and consumers wanted cowrie
shells and Indian textiles as payment for slaves. These products took a much more circuitous
route than a simple triangle. Cowrie shells, for example, were picked up
from merchants along the Pacific Ocean or South Asian coasts, then “cured” and processed
in Sri Lanka, then shipped again. With slaves coming to the New World across
the Pacific and commodities to pay for them flowing in multiple directions, the slave
trade into the Americas was part of a global, not just triangular, market. In fact, multidirectional trade in many goods
increased in diversity and quantity. In the seventeenth century literally millions
of pieces of porcelain went in Portuguese ships to Dutch and other European ports. And to get funds to buy that porcelain, European
shippers did a lot of local coastline shipping, stopping at ports around the Indian Ocean
or at Chinese depots in the Philippines. European consumers snapped up goods and merchants
grew wealthy. The increase in consumption was truly unprecedented:
For example, in 1660 the East India Company imported 23 pounds of tea to Britain; in 1750
it imported five million pounds. [missing text]
[[TV: Indiaman]] Besides slavery and colonization, innovation was also an important facilitator
of economic growth. And I don’t just mean innovation in terms
of actual things, I also mean innovation in terms of ideas…like corporations! The East India companies such as those founded
in Britain, the Netherlands, and France focused each kingdom’s international trade and raised
funds for investment. Joint stock companies arose to finance merchant
ships. The development of double entry bookkeeping
gave merchants and bankers a better idea of inflows and expenditures. However, there wouldn’t be laws limiting
liability of such companies until much later. So, a ship lost at sea could still mean the
investors’ loss of homes and possessions. Whereas now, when investors do things that
lose money, we just give them their money back. And talking of bankers brings us to the Fuggers,
or Fuggers. The Fugger family of bankers, who once loaned
money to monarchs such as Charles V and Philip II of Spain, who then spent everything on
defeating Protestants, the monarchy’s bankruptcy made the bankers penniless too. This whirl of commerce disrupted society by
producing new values and creating new groups of wealthy, influential people. Almost everywhere in Europe, people who weren’t
aristocrats became rich from global expansion of trade. Many of the aristocrats also became richer,
of course, but the wealth of new groups of people upset long-held notions about the importance
of family lineage. And capitalism–that is, the private ownership
of enterprises–changed everyday values and turned activities toward making profit above
all else. Capitalism created a new class of wealthy
traders and merchants, who competed for political influence with those from hereditary status
groups such as the nobility. We’ll hear more, of course, about the twists
and turns of capitalism across the centuries. But by the beginning of the eighteenth century
capitalism was in a lively stage of development, thanks to the abundance provided by the agricultural
and commercial revolutions and also by the Atlantic slave trade, which wrenched some
eleven to twelve million Africans from their homes and families. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next time.

100 comments on “Commerce, Agriculture, and Slavery: Crash Course European History #8

  1. When you say "the european slave trade was by far the largest," do you mean economically or by pure amount of slaves sold (I would argue the two are synonymous, at that time.)? The Arab slave trade dwarfed the size of the european slave trade, the europeans selling and/or moving 13 million people while the arabs had moved or sold over 20 million. That's purely over the course of 400 years. You could make the argument that the arab slave trade hasn't even ended because of how much the Saudis deal in trafficking people. So, I ask again, what do you mean when you say that the European slave market was by far the largest? I am legitimately confused.

  2. I really love that shirt! John wore it on some other episode (probably of the navigating the internet series) and I've wanted it since then! D:

  3. I’m getting sick of your Fagget face and voice respectively. Tone the patronizing smug attitude down 10%. It’s getting obvious.

  4. At 8:44, when you juxtapose the "in awe of Africans" with the "called them dumb to legitimise slavery", you slightly misrepresent things, making it sound as though the Europæans were just so greedy that they made up a totally bogus story of unintelligent Africans. These were different subpopulations of Africans; even today there are distinguishable African subpopulations, some of which have mean IQs near the global average and others whose IQ distributions are significantly different (in some cases as much as a two-sigma difference in means, which is a huge effect). Other sources (e.g. analysis of slave-descended populations in the Americas) support the theory that slaves in this period were drawn largely from the latter subpopulations. Of course that does not in any sense justify the slavery or the dehumanising attitudes, but the point is that the Europæans' error was one of values rather than facts, in inferring moral inferiority from (statistical) intellectual inferiority. (Anyone who believes that a subpopulation's distribution of intelligence justifies taking people as property and putting them to forced labour, is making an error that has nothing to do with population genetics or heritability.)

  5. The big question I would like to explore is why you have one of your collar buttons buttoned and one not 🤷🏻‍♂️

  6. I've always wanted to learn more about the African kingdoms that sold the slaves to Europeans. It seems like a rather taboo subject, since I guess it's uncomfortable to admit that slavery was a two-party system. The stories of slaver kingdoms who would sell their own people in order to buy weapons to fight the neighboring slaver kingdom sound pretty horrifying. Hope we get CC histories for the other continents/culture zones. Or maybe someone can recommend a book on the subject.

  7. European slave trade was the most violent? Arab slave traders castrated their slaves, which is why there isn't an African diaspora in the Middle East. Not to mention the current Arab slave trade in Libya.

  8. Wonderful episode! Incredible how do you pack so many information, from such different fields into a 15min video! Congratulations to the team! Keep it up!

  9. Let us celebrate the birth of capitalism. It is by far the most important contributor to rich people's pursuit of high scores. Don't worry about all the side effects though most of them aren't so horrible as in this video any more. After all it's a great boon for society that they have convinced us that making you pay them for the necessities to live in exchange for working for them is not theft but freedom. Now where is my rent money. I have to pay for them for the American dream of never retiring because you can't afford your house and eating at the same time.

  10. I feel so appropriate and so inappropriate at the same time watching this directly after eating maybe too much self-fried chili cheese fries…

  11. There are people that think slavery ended or there is no such thing as slavery ever in hostory. Human trafficking/ slavery is ancient but also still exists today in many ways.
    I have talked to some surprised by this.

  12. There are places today many things of slavery ( often sex slavery) is legal or allowed in some way.
    Then there is selling kids for marriage ( yes forced marriage of kids to adults is a thing that happens even in the western world legally).

  13. A few of these episodes have been half decent at explaining some of the things Marx was describing in his great work, Capital. The level of productivity in society is the basis for its social and political structures, primitive accumulation of capital was brutal but also civilizing and the basis for modern wage labor, that wealth inequality is inherent in production based on Capital, the growth of early Capital and its tendency of dissolving the old modes of production. I still think his final conclusion holds: that the associated producers should democratically and logically plan the use and distribution of labor and resources amongst vital industries in ways that ensure a healthy society and environment in a way that private ownership of Capital can never do with its anarchic and profit-driven markets.

    However, I disagree that 'capitalism' created these new groups. Instead, the development of exchange values occurred as productive forces increased, from Barter to Money to Capital. Capital developed, and its personification in the merchants and bankers made them the first Capitalists. However, this was not Capitalism and Capitalism is not a transhistorical category. Capitalism is production that is dominated by Capital, or production for the creation of surplus-values. It developed with the domination of Capital over industry, but just because Capital exists doesn't mean there is 'Capitalism.'

  14. Why didn’t African nations expand and conquer? They had better agricultural techniques, vast wealth and good technology. How was it that Europeans could so easily gain access to slaves?

  15. I would say:
    1. Corn
    2. Rice
    3. Potato.
    But I'm no expert, and I bet the experts have a hard time saying too.

  16. You are wrong, the Arab slave trade was the largest and most brutal slave trade in the world's history. The Arab slave trade has lasted for 14 centuries, and Africans are still being sold in Saudi Arabia today. More Africans were killed during the Arab slave trade than were even involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Arabs have had in place a brutal practice of cutting African male's penises and testicles off, turning them into eunuchs, so they couldn't reproduce. Most men died during castration by bleeding to death. And their female counter parts were kept as sex slaves.
    Who do you think the westerners got their slaves from? They bought them from Arabs and black Africans who'd captured people to sell into slavery. In American History, it took hundreds of thousands of selfless white men — the Republicans — who died fighting against slavery, against the Democrats who did the enslaving, KKK, Voted in Jim Crow laws, and voted against black civil liberties. If anything, western culture should be credited with ending slavery, rather than what you've said here, that they caused the worst bout of slavery in human history. It's just disgustingly missinformed, dangerously ignorant, and demonstrably false!

    Sadly, Americans today are fed a constant diet of only American history. I know this because I was educated in America, right through high school. Never did we have a class called "World History", only "American History" in 7th grade. Ignorance can lead to misplacement of anger. Which is why I think it's necessary for me to speak up here. Whether people in the United States are kept in the dark by design or it was an oversight, I can't prove either. I just know that I had to learn the rest of the world's history by going to university in the UK and by educating myself. I couldn't believe the things I hadn't been told until my adult life!

    Just a bit more information:
    The Arab slave trade had harems, where men would have sex with the slave girls. Islamic texts give very detailed and specific instructions to Muslim men, regarding how they are to interact with these slave girls. They were given instructions which women they could and couldn't force sex with. They are given the "right" to "spill seed" or "sow the seed", depending on whether the girl was a slave or not. And I say "girl" because these were girls, some prepubescent. Consensual sex was basically not a thing, even with their wives. There are instructions given for every detail of life. Islam prescribes everything for a Muslim's behavior. That's why Islam is called a total way of life, rather than just a religion.

  17. I didn't look it up, because I'm sure someone in the comments can help me out. Why plant clover? What does it do? Can you actually eat it, like you could dandelions?

  18. So I was watching The John green videos from 7 years ago for school and I see the most recent one and WHOA MY TEST SAVIOR HAS BEEN ON HERE FOR A LONG TIME

  19. Was the European market of slaves really the most brutal? I have read that many Arab countries do not have African populations to this day, largely due to the castration of African male slaves

  20. the new protein source in the outer banks plus the columbian exchanges provided things like the potato that allowed the cultivation of marginal land. yes an all those improvements.

  21. Europeans: hmmmm.. SPICES
    Africans: Oh no
    Americans: oh oh, the flu is coming

    500 years later

    Us commenting about these times with a device that fits in our pockets

  22. People need to stop moaning over the fact that present John is no longer John from the past; not to be confused with his earlier him from the past. People change, they mellow and become quieter.

  23. Again no mention of the Netherlands! Last week you forgot them in the list of reformation uprisings, our 80 year war against the Spanish is truely remarkable begging with the iconoclastic event called the Beeldenstorm. And now you forget the importance of the VOC! The first company that worked with stocks and the trading hub of Amsterdam with the first stock markets! The United Provinces were THE economic powerhouse of Europe in the 17th century. I hope you make a seperate video about the Dutch, on of the great influencers in that time

  24. I know it's probably a lot to ask but could you do Music History?? or Art history but especially music history

  25. Actually, the arab slave trade was more relevant both in duration as well as in numbers. It's a common mistake, yet a mistake it is.

  26. I have to listen to these new videos at 1.25x speed, because John Green just sounds off it I don't.

  27. I'm tired of this one sided slavery history. These crash courses feel more like social justice history crash course.

  28. So much about black slave trade and no word about how many slavic people were enslaved by tatars and turks, and sold in Venice, yeah thats the famous American PC.

  29. Very informative and well done! It's also nice to see some sources mentioned in the notes! Perhaps this will help many people understand the difference between facts supported by sources and data and opinions of the uninformed.

  30. Incomplete: Fail to explain the Islamic slave trade and practices. The number of slaves was similar and all the men were castrated. No slave families existed within that trade. Women were use as sex slaves and concubines. How that is less violent? Large percentage of the slaves sold to Europeans were taken as slaves by Islamists first and it was first formed as early as the 7th century.

  31. The most important difference between the potato and grains is that you don't have to mill the potato or mix it with yeast and prepare it. You just pull it out of the ground, clean it off, bake it and eat it. When you have to pay a miller to mill your grain for you, that is major.

  32. The fact that I've been to every crack, crevice, and corner of YouTube and only now found this page is beyond me. Kinda makes me think inquiring minds get watered down suggestions.Mmmnnnn??? Great channel, new subscriber!

  33. I want to unlike/down vote this video because of how horrifying slavery is, but also, this video was extremely informative. Im really glad they presented history in such an honest manner.

  34. Will everyone Please stfu about how John's changed styles? He'd 40-something now, ffs! Wait an see how much energy you have to be needlessly silly when you get 40.

  35. The East India Company is a Jesuit/Freemason company! Check out the flag on the website!
    It is the American Flag without the stars and the Confederate Flag! Betsy Ross did not make the American Flag! Another lie we were sold! All Roads Lead To Rome!

  36. Okay John. we've heard you now. can you please stop whining over the slave trade like a baby. It's really annoying to hear you repeat yourself over and over again, just because you think that africans are amazingly intelligent or whatever (lol)

  37. There should be an equivalent show that could show Chinese history. It would give the right idea about connection. i.e. China also increased population around these dates, but they kept it steady until last century. It'd be interesting to know what were the causes of that, and whether the growth of China and Europe were actually connected. We are used to understand History as an isolated process of some regions. Likely is not that, and eastern and western have been connected since always.

  38. Wait I thought we didn’t use native Americans like we tried but they were like lol no and would run away or something

  39. In the long list of all the things I do that I feel ashamed about later, forgetting to hit the like button on these videos has got to rank in the top 100.

  40. “The world may end today, but tomorrow people will still need to eat.” Lift From Edgedancer by Brandon Sanderson

    The quote just seemed relevant to the video.

  41. I disagree with his comment at time stamp 6:52(approx) where he talks about candidate for most important plant of the last 500 years, stating his vote is for the potato. I had a recent conversation with an Illinois farmer and in talking with him he said that you need a TON of potassium and a lot of fertilizer for potatoes. Get too much rain and it could destroy your potato crop by washing the potassium out of the soil. Corn on the other hand can and is planted around the world and is more responsible for population increases and avoiding famines, it's also the most manipulated crop humans have ever grown. Consider that it started as a small stalk of grass and now we have drought, blight, pest resistant strains of corn. This farmer said you need less land to grow corn than potatoes and get a much bigger yield. So, my vote for most important plant of the past 500 years is maize/corn, with potatoes in second place.

  42. I love these videos, basically everything Crash Course does. I could do without the “muh raysism” though…

  43. Capitalism was great for that transitional period of history. It fit an era of people that believed discrimination between humans was the norm, that not everyone had the same rights and certain people deserved none at all. In a world of racism, sexism, blind (by today's standards) religious devotion and universal exploitation of anyone but the aristocracy and the plutocracy, capitalism was a great way to move out of feudalism.
    Then and only then was capitalism somewhat fit for the world.

  44. New stuff in late medieval to the early modern age, what have we got?
    1. Gun powder, from China
    2. Movable type printing press, from China
    3. Seed drill and two-horse plough, from China

    Oh yeah, also Black Death, from China.

    🤷🏽‍♂️

  45. Enclosures destroyed sustainable land management practices to favor monocrops and deforestation. There is no clear proof that this produced more food. It did produce more wealth for the wealthy at the expense of food security for the rural communities. Please John, look back to John C. Scott, his Against the Grain book is full of insights.

  46. Every time you discuss the ugliness of slavery you always make me feel like we were human and were a somebody ((unlike a ton of other videos on YouTube)) THANK YOU for that and God bless you,keep up the GREAT work.

  47. Hello! I have a question . Couple episodes before we’ve been told, that about 90% of natives in America and Africa died because of maladies that European carried. How then slaves survived IN Europe ?

  48. 13:27 Whats does John mean by saying that investors get their money back if the lose them? Big scale speculation fraud or what?

  49. No mention of indentured servitude, an important means of controlling population growth in Europe and of disposing undesirables and the impoverished. 'Transportation' was the principle means by which north America was peopled and provided the earliest workers for the nascent cash crop economy of North America. Political tensions were eased by deporting political and religious radicals, landed aristocrats made money on cultivating tobacco and cotton. Many Jacobites composed songs about the woes of the Highland clearances and being transported to 'Virginny'. A key component to the survival of the Hanoverian regime in Britain. Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe as a means to empty London's debtors' prisons. When the wars of the 18th deprived Britain, France of indentured servants, they resorted to importation of Black African slavery.

  50. Along with the potato in Europe, corn and the sweet potato were game changers in Asia.

    1493 is a great book on the impact of the Columbian Exchange with an emphasis on commodities and the impact of diseases in that era.

  51. "Travelled northwards"

    Good job bringing up the topic of mass European slave trade perpetrated by Muslim nations without actually saying as much. Can't have the Europeans appear as equally savage or mistreated as others who held power huh.

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