Neanderthals 101 | National Geographic

Neanderthals 101 | National Geographic


– [Narrator] Neanderthals
are often depicted as brutish cave men, but science shows that our early ancestors
were actually quite advanced. Neanderthals, or homo neanderthalensis, are our closest relatives
in the human family tree. The species lived from about
400,000 to 40,000 years ago and inhabited an area
that stretched as far was as Europe’s Atlantic coast and
as far east as central Asia. Their habitat reached northward
to modern day Belgium, making them the first
humans to survive a cold, glacial ecosystem. The north’s cold environment
may have influenced neanderthals’ physique. Their bodies were relatively short, with males averaging
five feet, five inches and females five feet, one inch tall, and they were stocky with broad chests, bulky torsos, and muscular limbs. These adaptations helped neanderthals generate and retain body heat. Also, their noses were large and had relatively high bridges. This created a nasal chamber that warmed and humidfied the cold, dry air they’d breathe in northern regions. Apart from adaptations
that helped neanderthals survive a harsh, wintry habitat, the species also developed large brains. They were similar in size
to modern humans’ brains and were often larger. An increase in brain size may have played a significant role in another
type of adaptation, culture. Culture is indicative of
an intelligent species, and archeological evidence suggests that neanderthals had a
relatively sophisticated culture. They built shelters,
made and wore clothing, and created advanced tools. In fact, they were the first human species to make tools out of bone, not just stone. They also created objects that
served ornamental purposes. Neanderthals are suspected
to be the first humans to carry out the symbolic
gesture of burying their dead and adorning grave sites with flowers. Neanderthals may have also created what may be the world’s oldest cave art, which was found in Spain. Despite advances in their culture, sometime after 40,000 years ago, neanderthals mysteriously disappeared. Some scientists believe the
neanderthals were killed or out competed by modern
humans, or homo sapiens, who arrived in Europe
at around the same time as the neanderthals’ extinction. However, another theory suggests that neanderthals mated with modern humans and were absorbed into the
humans’ much larger population. That may explain why
most people of European or Asian descent have 1%
to 2% neanderthal genes in their DNA. For more than 150 years, neanderthals have perplexed anthropologists. The first neanderthal fossil specimen was discovered in Belgium in 1829 by Philippe-Charles Schmerling. However, it wasn’t officially classified as neanderthal until decades later. The first fossil to be
recognized as neandertahl and as an early human or genus homo fossil was found in 1856 by quarrymen in Germany. The new species was named neanderthalensis after the area where the fossils
were found, Neander Valley. Neanderthals’ fossils tell
us how evolution built them to be sturdy, to survive
their harsh environment, but their tools, art, and DNA tell us that their resilience
also involved innovation, creativity, and social behavior, much like homo sapiens today.

100 comments on “Neanderthals 101 | National Geographic

  1. If an anthropologist dug up Andre the Giant's bones from a peat bog, they would creat a new sub-human tree with giants and win a Nobel prize.

  2. How did our less-evolved ancestors build megalithic block walls and structures that involved technology that we can't solve or even approach today? No explanations exist, and 'aliens did it' blows evolution out of the water. Need some theories from these evolved brains contemplating these anomalies.

  3. Am I the only one to see the resemblance of the physique and the profile of the Neanderthal looked like Trump. Seriously.

  4. These are just speculations. I mean what proof is their that there were another species who were human like but with bigger brain but were outlived by supposedly smaller brained species. Humans were thought by god through revelation to bury their dead when the two sons of Adam killed one.

  5. What a cute voice she had !!
    She must have more DNA of Homosepian than that of Neanderthals ….πŸ˜‹πŸ˜‹πŸ˜Ž

  6. Simmilar to Autism no? stocky, wide shoulders, not very social or not good at it, high IQ, lazy eye or wide round eyes etc?

  7. Why do you think that Neanderthals are extinct? If I can reproduce with them, are they extinct because we look a bit different? Then is my Grandpa also extinct? …the point is that the history of science shows this tendency towards absolute conceptualisation a.k.a. "jumping to conclusions", e.g. the word is flat or the earth is the center of the solar system. Try turning off that thinking, and you may find that the origin of life on the earth is quite gradual and logical, that all things are actually living, and that the path from minerals to prokaryotes is right in front of our eyes!!!

  8. Not enough differences to be considered a different species. This is proof of a different race. They push the different species idea to help further biased agenda related to macroevolution which is a bunch of mularkey.

  9. Look at the map at :35. Our ancestory is most definitely out from Africa. 97% modern African vs 3% something else. This map shows why we are so predominantly globally infused with Neanderthal DNA. In actuality the presence of Neanderthal genes in our make up speaks not of positive aspects of Neanderthal traits, but instead indicates geographic bottleneck hijacking. We had to go thru them, Neanderthals, to make it out into the greater world. Can't swim in water without getting wet. The Neanderthal didn't make us smarter. The Neanderthal made us more temperamental. What made us smarter was crossing that crocodile infested water and exploring the land on the far side of the river. Why did the chicken cross the road? To get to the other side. We are smart because we took the risk of getting wet and made it out and not specifically because of the Neanderthal. Neanderthals went extinct because of us after all. Extinct is extinct and nothing else. Final.

  10. Neanderthals are humans or nah?

  11. Wait a minute humans can go extinct everybody panicπŸ˜₯πŸ˜₯πŸ˜₯πŸ˜₯πŸ˜₯πŸ˜₯πŸ˜₯πŸ˜₯πŸ˜₯

  12. Knowing the mentality of modern Europeans, I'd bet the Neanderthals were exploited, enslaved, introduced to diseases, and made war upon. The same as all other people the Europeans have come into contact with.

  13. In English, if you say you missing pig. it is interpreted that you are talking to the person you are addressing. .So yes it did appear as if you were addressing me, so I apologize to you if you were not

  14. Your sentence should have said: he is a lost pig. and not you are a lost pig. Do you see the difference? If you had said he then I would have known that you were referring to Trump.

  15. they might be strong when it comes to raw strength they have alot of problems they don't possess something that humans had
    1.Humans have flexible bones and tend to be faster sprinter
    2.Great intelligence-the large portion of their brain is more connected to eye sight their eye sight is 10% brighter than humans

  16. More proof the Bible is accurate. In the Bible Book of Genesis God states before the Flood and before Noah died at over 900 plus years old all humans before his time lived extraordinarily long lives. Now if I were to have seen that first Neanderthal Fossil found, I would simply realize that a human at the age of above 500 years old would indeed be different in forehead, length of jaw and skull size especially at the nasal extremity. After Noah God placed a time limit of mankind at 120 years. To this day science still cannot calculate as to why humans do not rejuvenate.

  17. How anthropologist has discovered that which type of human exist before how many years on the earth. Such as neanderthal where exist before 400,000 to 40,000 years ago??

  18. All humans are intelligent.
    Don't believe in evulation fairy tale.
    But haman havee different races but their father and mother are same

  19. I have a 4% Neanderthal footprint in my DNA. Does that mean I have the instinct to walk up to an elephant and wrestle it to the ground? πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚

  20. I think it would have been neat if there species would have survived with our species and we all existed among each other. Our way of life might have been alot different. I heard a rumor that neanderthals might have been cannibals. So that might be a little scary for modern humans to deal with. We should try cloning a neanderthal and examine there behavior.

  21. Neanderthals were humans in an ice age, morphed to survive. Just like a woolly mammoth is a fricken elephant. These idiot scientists can get you to believe anything. Common sense. Dinosaurs and Neanderthals history is totally false. I hate evolution scientists. Complete moronic theories.

  22. I have to tell the truth, all of you whites are European descendants, America is a stolen country, from us native Americans

  23. Imagine if some were still alive today? Having two different species if humans would be both incredible and possibly dangerous too.

  24. Their noses weren't large, the ones in the Middle East had large noses like every other animal in the hot climates to help them keep their noses moist. While the strains in Europe and snowy areas had smaller noses and ears to keep them warm like every other animal in cold climates, this is why the European and cold climate humans have smaller noses than subsaharans and desert dwelling Caucasians.

  25. Evolutionists want me to believe in Neanderthal but have never discovered a full skeleton, only fragments. I could construct a theoretical bird from hundreds of different bird bones too using that logic. Neanderthal is a made up fact preached as a truth to distance you from the reality of God

  26. Or maybe sapiens carry some virus/diseases and extinguish the neanderthal like the european colonies made at South America

  27. It is quite possible that we bred with some raped some killed some either by disease or fighting
    these are normal traits and conditions in modern humans,

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